The van Cuyck family in Culemborg
At the end of the 15th century two members of the van Cuyck family moved to Utrecht. They were both sons of Jan van Cuyck jr. jr. (C.III): Jan (U.I.A) and Anthonis (U.I.B). The branch founded by the first son (A-branch) did not exist for a long time, but with Anthonis a new branch (B-branch) started blooming.
A – BRANCH
(U.A.I) Jan van Cuyck
Jan van Cuyck was born in Culemborg. He was the son of Jan van Cuyck jr. jr. (C.III). We don’t know the name of his mother.
In 1507 Jan van Cuyck filed a claim for compensation because of the fact that he and Hendrik van Cuyck (C.IV) were held by lord Gherrit van Poelgest, knight (GA, 0370 Heren en graven van Culemborg, inv. 213.2). The trial was held before the court of Holland. In the documents Jan van Cuyck and Hendrik van Cuyck are called poorters van Culemborg (citizens of Culemborg), but it is not clear what the exact relationship was between them. Since nothing is specified, they were almost certainly brothers.
Jan married Aleydis (Alith) Florensdr van Jutphaes van Blockhoven, daughter of the mayor of Utrecht (Burman, 1738). They had at least two children:
Jan and Anna van Cuyck, the two children of Jan, married respectively Elisabeth and Adam Ram, two children of Michiel Ram. See also Regionaal Historisch Centrum Zuidoost Utrecht, 386 Familie De Wijkerslooth de Weerdesteyn, inv. 303: Cartularium getiteld Register van alle transporten ende andere contracten by de handt van zaliger jonker Evert Ram geschreven over de jaren 1432- 1601.
(U.A.II) Jan van Cuyck
Jan van Cuyck was born in Utrecht. He was the son of Jan van Cuyck (U.A.1) and Aleydis (Alith) Florensdr. van Jutphaes van Blockhoven.
He married (before 1524) Elisabeth Ram, daughter of Michiel Ram and Katrijn Splinter Jacobszdr, and brother of Adam Ram (who married Jan’s sister Anna). Jan and Elisabeth had a child (gender and name unknown) that died in 1566 (Repertorium op de lenen van de hofstede de Ham, 1351-1662).
Jan van Cuyck was mayor of Utrecht in 1537/38 and 1538/39 together with Goyert Boll
He bought a house in 1520 (Booth, V, 114).
Jan died on 19 October 1568. His widow died on 16 December 1571.
B – BRANCH
(U.B.I) Anthonis van Cuyck
Anthonis van Cuyck was born in Culemborg. He was the son of Jan van Cuyck jr. jr. (C.III).
He married Gauborch Pijll (Pyll), on 4 March 1496 (Burman). She was the daughter of Bruno (Bruning) Pijll, alderman of Utrecht, and Bertrade.
Anthonis and Gauborch had at least two sons:
(U.B.II) Jan Anthonisz. van Cuyck
Jan Anthonisz. van Cuyck was born in Utrecht around 1500. He was the son of Anthonis van Cuyck (U.B.I) and Gauborch Pijll.
Jan studied law (Buchell). From 1534 to 1543 he was raed / raid and alderman of Utrecht. In 1544/45 and 1545/46 he was mayor of Utrecht (together with Adam Ram).
Jan Anthonisz. Van Cuyck was a respected scholar. He not only annotated Flavius Charisius and Audonius, but he also published several works himself:
The two oldest sons of Jan, Anthonis and Wilger, are mentioned by Cornelius Valerius van Audewater, from Utrecht, professor at the University of Leuven 1557 – 1578. In 1561 he published a book “De Sphaera …” and in this book he refers to several people who pushed him to publish the book. Among them: “doctissimi Johannis Cauchii duos filios natu majores, adolescents et probitate et litteris etiam interioribus ac reconditis perpolitos, meis cognatis in studiis contubernales amantissimos”.
Jan married Elisabeth van Moerendael (before 1515 – 1576) in 1533. She was a daughter of Hendrik Wilgersz and Alit Thymansdr. Knijff. Their children:
See NNBW, 8, col. 353. NBW, 3, p. 938. Burman, 82-84. T&P 1567, 183. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, Oudheden en Statistiek van Utrecht, 2de serie, 3de jaargang, 1846, p. 64.
In 1551 he founded the Decama-, Cuyck- and Foeyts-veencompagnie.
Sources and bibliography
(U.B.III) Tyman Jansz. van Cuyck (1540 – 1616)
Tyman Jansz. van Cuyck was born in Utrecht on 5 October 1540 (TRESOAR, 319 Familie Van Beyma thoe Kingma, inv. 629). Tyman was the son of Jan van Cuyck and Elisabeth van Moerendael.
Tyman was married to Catharina van Sompijken (Cathalina van Sombeecken, van Zombeecke), daughter of Augustijn. They had several children:
He lived in Utrecht: "Residerende binnen de stad Utrecht" (18.09.1587 - TRESOAR, 103 Decama-, Cuyck- en Foeyts Veencompagnie, inv. 307); "wonende te Utrecht" (4.11.1592 - TRESOAR, 103 Decama-, Cuyck- en Foeyts Veencompagnie, inv. 328).
He died on 30 October 1616 and was buried in the church of Oldschote (TRESOAR, 319 Familie Van Beyma thoe Kingma, inv. 629).
Sources and bibliography
UTRECHT IN THE TROUBLED SIXTEENTH CENTURY
Throughout the Middle Ages Utrecht serves as a centre of Christianity in Europe. The Prince-Bishopric Utrecht is established in 1024, when the bishops are made princes of the Holy Roman Empire. They have both worldly and secular power and reign over Het Sticht, a large piece of land covering approximately the actual province of Utrecht (Nedersticht, a rather urban centre), as well as parts of Overijsel, Drenthe and Groningen (Oversticht, more rural).
Rising tension in the Habsburg Netherlands
After attaining full age in 1515, Charles V (1500-1558), emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, fully succeeds his father Philip the Handsome (1478-1506). Charles, born in Ghent, spent most of his childhood in the Habsburg Netherlands and considers them essential territories in his vast empire. However, in the sixteenth century tensions arise between the central authorities of the empire and the Netherlands, since long used to a certain degree of autonomy. In the first half of the sixteenth century Charles II, Duke of Guelders (1467-1538) and ruler of a vast territory in the north, frequently comes in conflict with the Habsburg rulers of the Netherlands. He repeatedly attacks Brabant, Utrecht and Holland and is a supporter of the Frisian rebels opposing the Habsburg regime. Citizens of Utrecht request the Guelder garrison to support their revolt against bishop Henry of Bavaria (1487-1552), ruler of the Sticht. In his turn, the latter turns to Charles V for help, willing to hand over secular power over Utrecht to the Emperor.
Charles V seizes the opportunity to enlarge the territory of the Habsburg Netherlands and takes over control in 1529. Supported by the States of Holland, his troops construct the coercion castle Vredenburg in Utrecht. The garrisons in Vredenburg will defend Holland as well. This manoeuvre puts an end to the Sticht. The bishop keeps his religious power, but the government is now lead by a Stadholder, under supervision of the Habsburg court in Brussels. The Habsburg rule brings peace to Utrecht and allows trade and industry to thrive. However, politics and religion remain strongly interwoven and heretics are from then on prosecuted by the city council, previously a prerogative of the Church.
In 1542, five years after William of Cleves (1516-1592) succeeds Charles of Guelders, Guelders troops attack the Empire, aiming for the Netherlands. Charles V firmly puts an end to the Guelders quarrels and reclaims the territory, relying on Charles of Guelders’ will. Guelders becomes the seventeenth province of the Habsburg Netherlands. The attachment of Guelders also marks an era of peace in the Netherlands. After all, Charles succeeds in bringing rest to a troubled, but crucial part of his Empire.
However, after 1550, increasing military conflicts – and the subsequent rise of taxes – and repression of heresy cause rising tensions in the Empire and the last third of the sixteenth century marks a deep crisis in the Netherlands. Religion plays an important role: the tension between the rigid and strictly catholic central authorities on the one hand and the flourishing and culturally more diverse Netherlands on the other hand peaks. They can be traced back to the early years of Charles V’s reign.
The writings of humanists such as Erasmus (1469-1536) and Protestant Reformers such as Luther (1483-1546) soon reach the Netherlands. They will continuously influence the bourgeoisie, despite the ban instituted by the central authority. Indeed, the Emperor installs an inquisition to deal with what they consider heresy and Lutheran, protestant and other writings considered heretic are officially banned. However, Reformers succeed to establish an alternative Church, inspired by individualism and humanism. It is conceived by a versatile amalgam of different, simultaneous movements that especially gain foothold among intellectuals in schools, chambers of rhetoric and printing houses. The close relationship between intellectuals and the religious renewing comes to an abrupt ending when Charles V declares a placard to burn all Lutheran books (1520) and installs an inquisition (1522). Hinne Rode (ca. 1468-1537), rector of the Brethren of the Common Life (Broeders van het Gemene Leven, a religious group related to the ‘Devotio Moderna’) in Utrecht, is one of the many that flee the town because of dissident religious views, his pupil Jan de Bakker (1499-1525) dies at the stake of The Hague. He is considered the first protestant martyr in the Netherlands.
Both Charles V and his son and successor Philip II (1527-1598) consider enforcing Catholicism as one of their imperial duties. The protestant opposition in the Netherlands is especially strong in the northern provinces of Holland and Friesland and Reformist views slowly spread to other provinces. The catholic rulers react fiercely and religious ‘refugees’ flee to ‘refugee churches’ such as London and Emden (Friesland). However, Reformism gains influence in the Netherlands and its presence can no longer be ignored.
Religious and political tensions culminate in the summer 1566 when Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury, outbreaks. It starts in Steenvoorde, where a crowd invades the chapel and rapidly spreads northwards. Calvinists, Anabaptists and others destroy religious statues and images of saints in hundreds of churches. In August Beeldenstorm reaches Ghent, Antwerp, Amsterdam and also Utrecht. The iconoclasts in Utrecht are inspired by the events in other towns as well as outdoor sermons (hagenpreken) and are frustrated by their local decision makers’ hesitant attitude towards Reformers. On 24 August, Jacob Cosijnsz. and Dirk Center, two Reformist leaders, request two church buildings for their religious practice. The city council hesitates, wanting to consult William the Silent, prince of Orange (1533-1584), and Reformists invade the Buurkerk. They also plunder the Geertkerk, Nicolaaskerk, Mariakerk, Jacobikerk and churches of the Dominicans and the Franciscans. On 27 August, the city attributes the Jacobi Church to the protestants and prohibits catholic preaches in the churches of Dominicans and Franciscans.
Philip II sends the Grand Duke of Alba (1507-1582) to the Netherlands to act against the revolt. Alba institutes the Council of Troubles (1567), a special tribunal to prosecute the leaders of the revolutions of the previous years. In 1568 Alba installs a Spanish garrison in Utrecht and takes severe measures against all forms of heresy. In the course of 1,5 years, about 65 citizens of Utrecht are executed and the Spanish reign of terror turns the entire city, regardless of belief, against the Spanish regime.
During the regime of Alba, many of the rebellions and dissidents, among them William the Silent, leave the Netherlands and protestants also flee or retain to underground activities. William leads the revolt against Alba and the Spanish Habsburgs. The victory in Brielle is a turning point: William of Orange gains support, anti-Spanish sentiments grow stronger and the revolt spreads. A first success for William is the Pacification of Ghent (1576), an alliance between the Habsburg provinces against the Spanish troops. However, Spanish garrisons still hold castle Vredenburg in Utrecht. Dutch rebels prepare to siege the castle, but confrontations are avoided. After negotiations, Alba and the Spanish garrisons flee Utrecht.
Inhabitants demand the immediate demolition of the castle, wanting to prevent a return of the Spanish or any future attack. The city council hesitates and the Utrecht people storm the castle and start demolishing it themselves. Demolition is completed in 1581, only two towers, parts of the city’s fortifications remain for now.
Despite the successes in the early years, the Pacification detaches in 1579: the Union of Arras, mainly southern, catholic states, reaffirm their loyalty to Philip II, while the Union of Utrecht strives for independence from Habsburg Spain and officially guarantees freedom of religion. It is one of the first official declarations of religious freedom and the Netherlands are considered among the most tolerant regions, where religious fugitives find shelter. The Dutch Revolt increasingly turns into a religious conflict: the opposition considers itself protestant and Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585) joins forces with Habsburg Spain. Calvinism gains influence in Utrecht and acquires more properties (eg. the church of the Franciscans, Nicolaaskerk and Buurkerk). In 1580 Calvinists demand the city council to officially choose between Catholicism or Protestantism. However, given the political events, there is no choice, and the situations forces them to pick Protestantism. On 18 June 1580, Catholicism is banned in Utrecht. Whereas a mere 18.000 religious men and women were living in Utrecht at the beginning of the sixteenth century, most of them have, a few decades later, lost the right to their faith.
In 1581 the provinces that make out the Union of Utrecht declare independence in the Act of Abjuration. After the Spanish defeat and the Act of Abjuration, the ecclesiastical province of Utrecht is dismantled and Catholics flee the city.