Jan I van Cuyck
The canons of the collegiate church in Grave showed great admiration for their founder: Jan I van Cuyck. They define him as a wise and pious man, famous for his honour, a prudent politician and clever pacificator, who performed services for princes and barons. Historiographers and historians use superlatives when writing about Jan van Cuyck. Franz Funck-Brentano describes him as un des plus habiles diplomates du temps (one of the most competent diplomats of his time). Donald E. Queller, in his study about the diplomatic personnel of the Counts of Flanders, states that John was a man of outstanding importance for his family connections, his considerable possessions, and his own abilities. Jan van Cuyck not only favoured the town of Grave and the Land of Cuijk, he was also a skilled knight who fought bravely at Woeringen in 1288. Although he certainly was one of the main conspirators against Floris V, Count of Holland, he remained very much appreciated for his diplomatic skills on the international scene. 
Power and property
In the 11th and 12th centuries the van Cuyck family possessed a vast amount of allodial land in the region along the river Linge, concentrated mainly between Zennewijnen and Dalem. They also had possessions in Holland and the town of Grave belonged to their allodial property. Through donations to ecclesiastical institutions (especially the abbey of Mariënweerd, founded by the family), bequests to related families (Arnsberg, Rietberg, Bentheim, Arkel), sales and confiscation, they gradually lost parts of their original allodial land. By the middle of the 13th century their allodial property was reduced to Meteren and Est, to parts in and around Geldermalsen and to the town of Grave. Such was the state of affairs when John I of Cuyck succeeded his father Hendrik III in 1254.
Next to this allodial property Jan van Cuyck held the Land of Cuijk as a fief from the German king. It was situated in between the duchy of Brabant and the county of Gelre and bordered in the east on the river Meuse and in the west on the river Peel. Economically and strategically speaking, it was an important region, even more so since the main road from Venlo to Nijmegen cut across it. Nevertheless, it was a rather small fief. Its territory had even shrunk in the course of the 13th century due to the development of the sovereign seigniories Boxmeer, Sint-Anthonis, Sambeek, Haps and Escharen.
Nobleman and knight
In the 11th and 12th centuries the lords of Cuijk ranked among the most noble and powerful dynasts of their time. Closely related to the houses of Boulogne, Lorraine, Rode, Hochstaden and Arnsberg, they were considered equals to the Counts of Holland and Gelre. But their position declined after their involvement in the murder on Floris the Black in 1133. Their castle at Cuijk was entirely destroyed and the Count of Holland confiscated part of their landed property.
Although Jan van Cuyck was a minor Lord, the prestige of the family was still high and widespread. In 1274 Jan appears for the first time with the title of miles or knight. This confirmation of prestige was materialised in his seal, depicting a knight on horseback holding in one hand a sword and in the other a shield (with the Cuyck coat of arms), bearing the inscription S(igillum) Iohannis D(omini) de Kuc Militis. The counterseal showed the Cuyck coat of arms and the inscription Secretum D(omini) de Kuc.
Lord of Cuijk and Grave
The Land of Cuijk was a small, but strategically and economically important region. Acting as Lord of Cuijk, Jan van Cuyck pursued to maintain stability and augment prosperity. He took several measures to benefit the economy in the Land of Cuijk: safe-conduct for the merchants from Lübeck and arrangements concerning the toll on the river Meuse.
Jan van Cuyck was the first Lord who granted privileges to the town of Grave. In 1285 he fortified the city and replaced shortly afterwards the wooden palisade with a stone wall.
Jan van Cuyck founded and endowed the guesthouse of Saint-Catherine in Grave: on 1 May 1291 he donated a yearly income for the purpose of sheltering the poor and building an altar. Three years later he donated half of the noval tithes of Cuijk, Beugen, Boxmeer and Sambeek to the vicars of the named parishes and the other half to the guesthouse.
In Grave he took on the completion of the building works of an existing parish church of Saint-Elisabeth. Once finished, he transformed this parish church into the collegiate chapter of Saint Elisabeth of Hungary. He endowed the newly founded prebends with 58 morgen of land (out of his allodial possessions in Tiel) and several rentes. He transferred to the canons the right to appoint the sacristan and the schoolmaster.
The Beguine convent of Grave could count on his protection and enjoy the privileges and customs of ’s Hertogenbosch.
He also favoured ecclesiastical institutions in Roermond, Utrecht and Zennewijnen .
In 1307 Jan van Cuyck donated the common lands of Grave under certain conditions to the inhabitants of the town. One year later he donated several common lands situated between Maas and Peel to the people of Beugen, Brakel, Cuijk, Linden, Beers, Mill, Escharen and Grave. Sometime later the inhabitants of Sambeek, Vierlingbeek and Overloon received the common lands between Boxmeer en Vierlingbeek.
Around 1260 Jan van Cuyck married Jutta of Nassau, which marriage linked him with the houses of Nassau and Gelre, Jutta being the daughter of Henry II the Rich of Nassau and Mechteld of Gelre. John thus became the brother-in-law of John of Nassau, Elect-Bishop of Utrecht, of Otto of Nassau, founding father of the house Oranje-Nassau, and of Walram of Nassau, founding father of the house Luxemburg-Nassau. Adolf of Nassau, son of Walram and Adelheid of Katzenelnbogen, who would become King of Germany in 1292, was Jan van Cuyck’s nephew. Moreover, John was related to the powerful nobleman Gijsbrecht of Amstel, to Jan III of Heusden, to the lords of Herpen and to several families in Brabant.
Feudal relations connected him to the King of Germany (the Land of Cuijk), the Count of Gelre (possessions in the neighbourhood of Roermond), the Archbishop of Cologne, the Bishop of Utrecht and the Duke of Brabant (Neerloon). He had a good relationship with the abbey of Mariënweerd, founded by the Cuyck family in 1129, and made a donation to the Munster abbey in Roermond.
In 1288 John became a vassal of the Count of Berg. On 22 September 1293 he became a liege man of Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders, for an annual fief of 120 lb. parisis and a one-off payment of 2.000 lb. tournois. He promised to serve Guy against all men, except the King of Germany, the Duke of Brabant, the Count of Cleves, and the Count of Holland. Guy’s son Robert of Bethune confirmed this on 13 April 1300. The fief was raised with 40 lb. parisis and an extra sum of 1.000 lb. black tournois was paid. In 1295 John became a liege man of Edward I of England for an annual fief of 200 lb. black tournois, to be paid in pound sterling by the Exchequer in Westminster; he received the letters patent on 28 April. The system of fief-rentes offered several advantages for the liege lord: the fief-rente was not hereditary and could be halted at any given time. It was the ideal tool for (temporary) political, military and diplomatic activities. The liege man was able to increase his income in times of lower revenues out of land.
All these networks and relations provided Jan van Cuyck also with high esteem and recognition.
Utrecht and Holland
In his early years Jan van Cuyck mainly initiated activities within the network of his family and relatives. He was a much appreciated witness and surety. In 1274 John provided financial support to John of Nassau, Elect-Bishop of Utrecht and became thus involved in a long lasting conflict between Utrecht and Holland. That year, the Elect-Bishop faced an uprising of local nobles led by the powerful lords Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel and Herman VI of Woerden, who held lands situated between the bishopric and the County of Holland. Floris V, Count of Holland, took advantage of the situation, expanding his territory and cleverly manoeuvring to gain power over the principality. Floris V succeeded in neutralising and controlling the main protagonists. First, he brought in Jan van Cuyck and Gijsbrecht of Amstel as advisors and mediators in his conflict with John of Nassau; they pledged loyalty to Floris (23 March 1278). But the Count of Holland betrayed the Elect-Bishop, signed an agreement with the latter’s opponents and finally took control of the principality (26 July 1279). Cuyck and Amstel were overruled. Their prestige and authority were heavily damaged.
Next, Floris wanted to gain control over the strategically important fortresses of Ter Horst, Vreeland and Montfoort. John of Nassau had pledged these castles respectively to Cuyck, Amstel and Woerden. In 1279 Jan van Cuyck handed over Ter Horst and thus also lost the toll and jurisdiction of Rhenen, which severely diminished his income. But he knew he would lose even more by not submitting to the Count’s demand. Floris took the castles of Vreeland and Montfoort by force of arms. Amstel was imprisoned and Woerden exiled; their possessions were confiscated. Three important links (Nassau, Amstel and Woerden) in Johns network were severely weakened and this also affected Jan van Cuyck.
In 1281 Floris V travelled to England to discuss several matters with Edward I, King of England, i.e. the quarrel between the Count and Floris of Avesnes, the marriage of Margaret of Holland and Alphonse of England, and compensations for mutual damage caused by Dutch and English merchants. Three advisors accompanied the Count on his trip: Nicholas of Cats, William of Egmond and … Jan van Cuyck. One could get the impression that the relationship between Floris and John had stabilised and that the Count had included John in the inner circle of councillors and advisors. But this is not correct. Floris developed the habit to neutralise (potential) enemies by engaging them as personal advisors. This way he was able to keep a close eye on them.
So the struggle continued. On 1 October 1282 Jan van Cuyck handed over his fortress of Tongelaar (Mill) to Floris V, who returned it as a fief under the condition that the Count was permitted to station his troops there. Thus John was not only forced into a feudal relationship with Floris, he also had to accept the presence of the troops of the Count of Holland in the Land of Cuijk, close to the town of Grave. The stationing of the troops of the Count of Holland in Tongelaar certainly severely violated John’s authority. A few years later Jan van Cuyck warranted the reconciliation of Amstel (1285) and Woerden (1288) with Floris V and again pledged loyalty to the Count. Although the appeasement of Floris with Amstel and Woerden partially restored John’s network, his authority and prestige were heavily damaged.
Jan van Cuyck’s position was weakened by the Count of Holland. But the Lords of Cuyck had a tradition of strong ties with Brabant and Jan started to focus on this powerful ally to strengthen his own position. Moreover Jan had negotiating skills, he was civilized, he spoke several languages and had a good network: all the skills needed to become a diplomat.
From 1281 onwards Jan van Cuyck developed a very good relationship with John I, Duke of Brabant. As a liege man of Brabant and probably also related to the Duke, Jan van Cuyck became a member of the Duke’s council. 
John I of Brabant is famous as the hero of the Battle of Woeringen, but he was also a great legislator and left his mark on the institutional history of Brabant. He gave similar privileges to several towns in Brabant and Jan van Cuyck acted as a witness on many of those occasions. In 1291 the Duke authorised John and Wouter Volcart to negotiate and draw up the privileges of ’s Hertogenbosch; the Duke declared he would approve whatever they decided.
Jan van Cuyck became an important advisor and councillor and he certainly was the most important man in the entourage of John II of Brabant. Between 1271 and 1308 he appears as a witness and sealer in innumerable charters. He also acted as surety and arbiter in important affairs or as go-between concerning financial transactions or loans. Sometimes the Duke would also act as guarantee for John and they often acted together in international affairs. Jan van Cuyck was considered the first representative of the Duke: the German King Adolf of Nassau declared in 1292 that John was allowed to accept the oath of fealty of Floris V in case the King and the Duke would be unavailable to attend the ceremony.
John’s relationship with the Duke of Brabant certainly added to his reputation and prestige. His military activities reinforced this process. He was in charge of the Brabant troops in 1284 and he accompanied the Duke on his expedition to Tiel in 1285, but he especially gained fame during the Battle of Woeringen in 1288, when he proved to be one of the best and brave knights on the field.
John developed an impressive social, professional and feudal network. And as the number of connections was rising, the chance of conflicting loyalties increased. By the end of the 1280’s the feudal relations of Jan van Cuyck were already extensive and complex. He was a vassal of the King of Germany for the Land of Cuijk. Since long the lords of Cuijk were vassals of the Bishop of Utrecht and the Archbishop of Cologne. John was also a vassal of the Count of Gelre, the Count of Holland and the Duke of Brabant and in 1288 he obtained a fief rente from the Count of Berg.
When a war broke out between Brabant and Gelre concerning the succession in Limburg, Jan van Cuyck was placed in a difficult position. The Archbishop of Cologne, the lords of Valkenburg and Boxmeer and the Counts of Flanders and Luxemburg supported Gelre while the Counts of Loon, Jülich, Kleef and Holland, the lord of Horn and the citizens of Cologne allied with Brabant. Despite his familial and feudal ties with Gelre and his feudal connection with the Archbishop of Cologne, John chose to fight at the side of Brabant. During the Battle of Woeringen (5 June 1288) the Count of Berg took prisoner Siegfried of Westerburg, Archbischop of Cologne. After his release the Archbishop complained that John had not undertaken any action to come to his rescue. John declared that the Duke of Brabant was his liege lord, but he also recognised that he, like his forefathers, was a vassal of the Archbishop of Cologne. As an excuse, he maintained not taking the Archbishop’s side, as the latter’s servants had stolen his wine. The pope also confirmed the feudal connection between Cuyck and the Archbishop, but in real terms the ties were not strengthened until after Siegfried’s death. This incident shows how John was allowed, because of the weight of his social and symbolic capital, to neglect feudal relations without being penalised for it. This is also clear from his attitude towards the Count of Gelre.
During the Limburg Succession Wars, John chose the side of Brabant, thus betraying his feudal and familial relations with Gelre. The Count of Gelre was taken prisoner at Woeringen and because he had so many debts, he was forced to pledge his county to his father-in-law Guy of Dampierre. Jan van Cuyck acted as a witness on this occasion and later supervised the reimbursement.  John also lent money to the Count of Gelre and he guaranteed the settlement between Brabant and Gelre by the Bishop of Cambrai.
In the 1290’s John’s network would become even more complex. He developed contacts with Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders, and in 1293 he became his vassal against a fief-rente. There was also a connection between Cuyck and Kleef. The relationship between Cuyck and Germany became very intensive when Adolf of Nassau, John’s nephew, was elected King in 1292: Jan van Cuyck became his ambassador and representative on many occasions. And in 1295 John became a vassal of Edward I, King of England. The new links in John’s network were interconnected among each other. Guy of Dampierre was not the best of friends with his son-in-law Floris V: the two were fighting about Zeeland-bewesten-Schelde, the bone of contention between Holland and Flanders since the 12th century. Guy was also the mortal enemy of the Avesnes family, who had very close ties with Holland. The Count of Kleef was an ancient ally of Holland and Brabant. Edward of England was connected with Brabant, Holland and Flanders through marital ties. The son (and successor) of John I of Brabant was married to Margaret of England. The son (and successor) of Floris V of Holland was to be married to Elisabeth of England; he was raised at the English court. Arrangements were made for a marriage between the English crown prince and Filippina of Flanders.
In 1294 war had broken out between Edward I of England and Philip IV the Fair of France. Edward immediately aimed at organising a coalition on the Continent and soon succeeded in arranging alliances with Floris V of Holland, the German King Adolf of Nassau, John II of Brabant and the Counts of Jülich and Bar. For Jan van Cuyck this situation did not cause any problems. He successfully accomplished the mission assigned to him by Edward to mediate in the conflict between Holland and Flanders (April 1295): he brokered a ceasefire with re-establishment of commercial relations between the two countries. This was also a profitable situation for John as he was a vassal of both Counts. After the truce came to an end (31 August 1295), the fighting continued and for John the risk of conflicting loyalties increased again.
In January 1296 the setting changed drastically when Floris signed a treaty with France. In order to save the continental coalition Floris had to be eliminated or at least inactivated. King Edward and his allies confided in Jan van Cuyck to set up a plot.
As John was a vassal of Floris, in accordance with feudal law, he first annulled his oath of fealty by the intermediary of his chaplain Henry. Then the plan was unfolded: on 23 June 1296 Gerard of Velsen, Gijsbrecht of Amstel and Herman of Woerden captured Floris during a hunting party and locked him up in Muiderslot castle; he was killed a few days later.
The names of the conspirators against Floris appear in several contemporary documents. Next to Jan van Cuyck we find the names of John of Heusden, Gijsbrecht of Amstel, Herman of Woerden and Gerard of Velsen. Some documents also point to the Duke of Brabant and the Count of Flanders as accomplices. All these men belonged to the social network of Jan van Cuyck.
Setting up a conspiracy against Floris was a risk for John and asked for a clever assessment. Floris was the weak link in his network and could harm his social and symbolic capital by inducing a conflict of interest. The Count of Holland had already caused him a considerable amount of damage. John had not been able to establish a tight relationship with Floris. Mutual familiarity and appreciation, required sources for generating social capital, were lacking. By signing a treaty with France, Floris had betrayed the King of England and his allies. A secret addendum to the treaty specified that the Count of Holland was only bound to wage war against Jan van Cuyck and the lord of Valkenburg. Floris thus broke all ties with John and indulged in a violent assault on John’s power. The latter’s response to this attack safeguarded the esteem and prestige he enjoyed by the other members of his network. John chose to annul his oath of fealty to the Count and consequently lost his fief (the fortress of Tongelaar) (economic capital) but confirmed his trustworthy and sincere image (symbolic capital). Even though the involvement of John into the conspiracy was discovered, John’s prestige was not harmed, which proves his strong position in the field of power: he was able to dominate the social field, relying on his symbolic power.
One weak link in the network remained: Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders. Guy was a vassal of Philip the Fair of France and in January 1296 the Count had allied himself with the King in the latter’s war against England. But Philip undermined Guy’s power and authority in Flanders and he humiliated him on several occasions. Thus Guy had ears for an alliance with England.
After several months of negotiating – Jan van Cuyck was one of the negotiators – Guy of Dampierre officially joined the English coalition in January 1297. Jan van Cuyck and two Flemish envoys were sent to England to swear loyalty to Edward in name of the Count of Flanders. Since Guy had broken his feudal ties with Philip IV the Fair, war between Flanders and France was imminent. On 15 June 1297 French troops invaded Flanders. The Count of Flanders was thrown off his own resources as the promised English and German support kept him waiting. In October an armistice was concluded, eventually being prolonged until 6 January 1300. In the meanwhile Pope Boniface VIII brought about a peace agreement between France and England which, however, did not include Flanders. Guy not only lost his ally in England, but also in Holland and Zeeland as John of Avesnes, Count of Hainault, became Count of Holland in November 1299.
Jan van Cuyck was a very active and important player on the international scene in the years 1296-1300. He arranged the elimination of Floris V and negotiated the treaty between England and Flanders. He was able to convince Adolf of Nassau to send troops to Flanders. Edward informed him on a regular basis about the progress of his continental expedition. After Edward had finally arrived in Flanders, Jan van Cuyck was sent out to restart negotiations with Adolf of Nassau (September – October 1297), but he failed to come to an agreement. He was later (March 1298) appointed as arbiter between Guy of Flanders and John of Brabant in case of a violation of the treaty between them, he negotiated between Flanders and Gelre (1298) and he arranged financial matters for Guy of Dampierre (1298-1299). John also advised Guy of Dampierre how to approach the newly elected German King Albert I (summer of 1298) and obtained the cancellation of the anathema Adolf of Nassau had proclaimed over Flanders.
When the armistice came to an end (6 January 1300) the situation in Flanders was desperate. In May 1300 the Count of Flanders surrendered. Guy of Dampierre, Robert of Bethune and many Flemish noblemen were imprisoned in French castles. The county was annexed to France. A month earlier, Robert of Bethune, Guy’s oldest son, had confirmed and augmented John’s fief-rente. But after the annexation of Flanders by France John disappeared momentarily from the international spotlights and only acted as a witness for Dirk of Kleef, as councillor and confident of John of Brabant and as executor of the testament of William of Horn and Altena.
The situation had changed completely. England had made peace with France. John II of Brabant was officially allied to Flanders, but eventually managed to stay on the sideline. Holland fought at the side of France, the Count of Bar was defeated and the new King of Germany had signed a treaty with Philip the Fair. For the time being, John fell back on his activities as councillor of the Duke of Brabant, but he also maintained his relationship with the other links in his network (Germany, England, Kleef, Flanders). His negotiating skills still were very much appreciated and his prestige remained untouched.
In August 1304 a first attempt was undertaken to start peace negotiations between Flanders and France. Jan van Cuyck was appointed as negotiator for the Flemish party (together with Gerard of Vertbois and John of Gavere), but after three days the talks turned out to be unsuccessful. A second attempt, after the Battle of Pevelenberg, eventually resulted – after more than eight months – in the treaty of Athis-sur-Orge. Jan van Cuyck again acted as negotiator for Flanders.
After the peace treaty was signed (23 June 1305) the negotiations continued with regard to its execution. The treaty’s terms were humiliating for Flanders and the townspeople refused to honour many of the treaty’s conditions. Jan van Cuyck cleverly withdrew from the negotiating table, thus keeping intact his prestige. He spent his last years mainly with activities for the Duke of Brabant and in his own Land of Cuijk. Jan died on 13 July 1308.
Jan I van Cuyck was very much respected and gained a lot of prestige and fame during his lifetime. Chroniclers and historians praise him for his bravery on the battlefield, for his work and activities in Cuijk and Grave, and for his actions on the international scene. Up until today Jan van Cuyck is considered a hero in the towns of Cuijk and Grave. He appears in both the “canon of Cuijk” and the “canon of Grave”. Since 1865 a statue of Jan van Cuyck is standing on the main square. In 1854 the regent of the guesthouse in Grave (founded by Jan van Cuyck) placed a statue of Jan in one of the rooms. A mill in Sint Agatha near Cuijk, built in 1860, was named after Jan van Cuyck, as was the local footballteam (founded in 1931) and a party boat on the river Meuse. In 2008, on the occasion of the 700th anniversary of his death, the town of Cuijk organized a huge commemoration including an exhibition and a theatre spectacle.
 Register defunctorum, cited in J.J.F. Wap, Geschiedenis van het Land en der Heeren van Cuyk (Utrecht, 1858), p. 124, after D. Paringet, Memoriaal of beschryving van de stad Grave en den lande van Cuyk, I (Utrecht, 1752), p. 79 (who translated the original tekst from Latin to Dutch).
 F. Funck-Brentano, Philippe le Bel en Flandre (Parijs, 1897), p. 156. Cf. also H. van Werveke, Brugge en Antwerpen. Acht eeuwen Vlaamse handel (Gent, 1941), p. 24.
 D.E. Queller, ‘Diplomatic Personnel Employed by the Counts of Flanders in the Thirteenth Century’, Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, 34 (1956), pp. 385-422 (p. 417).
 This chapter is a summary of H. van Cuyck & V. Lambert, ‘Jan I van Cuyck († 1308). Topdiplomaat in een woelige tijd’, in: Noordbrabants Historisch Jaarboek, 33 (2016), at press.
 B.J.P. Van Bavel, Transitie en continuïteit. De bezitsverhoudingen en de plattelandseconomie in het westelijk gedeelte van het Gelderse rivierengebied, ca. 1300 – ca. 1570 (Hilversum, 1999), pp. 142-157.
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office. Edward I. A.D. 1292-1301 (Londen, 1895), p. 134.
 B. Lyon, From fief tot indenture. The transition from feudal to non-feudal contract in Western Europe (Cambridge Mass., 1957), p. 288.
 About this conflict: F. Ketner, ‘De elect Jan van Nassau en zijn tijd’, Bijdragen voor de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden 12 (1957), pp. 1-25. Van Amstel, pp. 114-133. J. M. van Winter, ‘De landsheren van de noordelijke gewesten: de bisschoppen van Utrecht en de graven van Gelre, Kleef en Bentheim’, in Wi Florens… De Hollandse graaf Floris V in de samenleving van de 13de eeuw, ed. by D.E.H. de Boer, E.H.P. Cordfunke and H. Sarfatij (Utrecht, 1996), pp. 55-67. D.L. Roth, Ene stille waerheyt van sware dingen. Historische opstellen betreffende de Zeeuwse geschiedenis en haar Hollandse en Vlaamse context, 1245-1305 (Delft, 2007), pp. 92-100.
 A. Wauters, Le Duc Jean I et le Brabant sous le règne de ce prince (1267-1294) (Brussel, 1862). M. Keunen & J. Goossens, Jan I, hertog van Brabant: de dichtende en bedichte vorst (Leuven, 1994).
 G. Croenen, Familie en macht. De familie Berthout en de Brabantse adel (Leuven, 2003), pp. 256-258. About the council: J. Libon, Recherches sur la formation du Conseil des ducs de Brabant, Brussel, 1947. Cf. also G. Croenen, ‘Governing Brabant in the twelfth century. The duke, his household and the nobility’, in Secretum scriptorum: Liber alumnorum Walter Prevenier, ed. by W. Blockmans, M. Boone and Th. de Hemptinne (Louvain, 1999), pp. 39-76.
 R. van Uytven, ‘Standenprivilegies en -beden in Brabant onder Jan I (1290-1293)’, Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, 44 (1966), pp. 413-456.
 Queller, p. 402.
 Ch. Divivier, Les influences française et germanique en Belgique au XIIIe siècle. La querelle des Avesnes et des Dampierre jusqu’à la mort de Jean d’Avesnes (1257) (Brussel – Parijs, 1894). M. Vandermaesen, ‘Vlaanderen en Henegouwen onder het huis van Dampierre 1244-1384’, in Algemene Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, II (Haarlem, 1982) pp. 399-414. M. Vandermaesen, ‘Het graafschap Henegouwen’, Ibid., 441-442. E.H.P. Cordfunke, ‘Familierelaties en dynastieke belangen’, in Wi Florens… De Hollandse graaf Floris V in de samenleving van de 13de eeuw, ed. by D.E.H. de Boer, E.H.P. Cordfunke and H. Sarfatij (Utrecht, 1996) 31-33.
 M. Prestwich, Edward I (Berkeley, 1988), pp. 376-400.
 J.W. Verkaik, De moord op graaf Floris V (Utrecht, 1995), pp. 116-118. At the same time John of Avesnes, Count of Hainault, also signed a treaty with France.
 Funck-Brentano, passim. Th. Luykx, Het grafelijk geslacht Dampierre en zijn strijd tegen Filips de Schone (Leuven, 1952). J.F. Verbruggen & R. Falter, 1302. Opstand in Vlaanderen (Tielt, 2002). J.F. Verbruggen, The Battle of the Golden Spurs. Courtrai, 11 July 1302 (Woodbridge, 2002).
 Adolf of Nassau later broke his promise to send help and signed a treaty with France. M. Prestwich, ‘Edward I and Adolf of Nassau’, in Proceedings of the Newcastle upon Tyne Conference 1989 (Woodbridge, 1991), pp. 127-136, sp. 130-131.